The Sultanate of Oman is situated on the southeastern coast of the Arabian Peninsula, sharing land borders with Saudi Arabia, the United Arab Emirates and Yemen. Its area spans some 309,500 sq. km, with Muscat being Oman's capital and largest city - historically also the principal trading port of the Gulf region. The projected 2021 population of Oman was set at 5.223 million.
Sultan Qaboos bin Said was the hereditary leader of the country's absolute monarchy, from 1970 to 2020. Today, his successor is his cousin, Sultan Haitham bin Tariq. The Sultanate's national currency is the Omani rial, and its business languages are Arabic and English.